Periodontal Disease


Gingivitis is the inflammation of the gum or gingiva. This causes the gum to become red, swollen and bleed. Gingivitis is due to the gum responding to plaque (sticky biofilm with bacteria) on the tooth for more than 2 days.

Gingivitis is reversible with the removal of the plaque by a dentist or dental hygienist and thorough brushing and cleaning between the teeth at home.



Periodontitis is the inflammation of the structures around the teeth (gum, bone and ligament). It is an irreversible process, that in severe cases can cause the teeth to become loose and eventually lost.

Periodontitis is caused by the body’s response to plaque on the teeth. Some people with gingivitis can develop periodontitis. Generally, periodontitis is not painful and may first be detected by your dentist or dental hygienist when they are examining your gums.

Risk factors for developing periodontitis includes family history (people respond to plaque differently), smoking, diabetes, stress and some medications.

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